Plant Physiology

By Dr. Mohmad Arief Zargar   |   University of Kashmir
Learners enrolled: 969
The course “Plant Physiology” is a Core Course in Semester V of B.Sc. Botany under the Choice Based Credit System (CBSE). The course has been meticulously designed to acquaint and enlighten the students about key concepts regarding various functional aspects of plants and complement the understanding of different topics of Plant Physiology, with special focus on uptake and translocation of water and nutrients, physiology of flowering and the role of plant growth regulators and photoreceptors.
The objectives of this course are to give the target students an understanding of:
  • Water Potential and its components, and how they drive the flow of water 
  • How the ascent of sap occurs in xylem
  • Transpiration and mechanism of stomatal movement.
  • The importance of mineral nutrition especially the role and deficiency symptoms of essential elements
  • How nutrients are uptaken  and transported across cell membranes through active and passive processes
  • How translocation in the phloem occurs and its dependency on phloem loading and unloading
  • Discovery, chemical nature and physiological roles of plant growth regulators and some photoreceptors
  • Physiology of flowering with special focus on photoperiodism and vernalization
  • Seed dormancy
  • Growth and development 
  • Stress Physiology

Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Core
Duration : 12 weeks
Start Date : 29 Jul 2019
End Date : 19 Oct 2019
Exam Date :
Enrollment Ends : 10 Sep 2019
Category :
  • Biological Sciences & Bioengineering
Level : Undergraduate

Course layout

Weeks Weekly Lecture Topics Assignments (No. & Type)*
Week 1 : Water and life, Physical chemical properties of water, Water Potential and its components, Aquaporins 12 Objectives
Week 2 : Diffusion, osmosis, absorption (SPAC), Ascent of sap, Transpiration: Its importance and factors affecting transpiration, Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata 12 Objectives
Week 3 : Essential macronutrients and micronutrients: Role, deficiency and toxicity, Methods of study and use of nutrient solutions, Chelating agents, Biological membrane: Structure and Function, Chemical properties of soil (pH and soil nutrient status) 12 Objectives
Week 4 : Soil as a nutrient reservoir and transport of ions across cell membrane (passive absorption), Active absorption, Mineral nutrient uptake (mechanism), Phloem transport 12 Objectives
Week 5 : Phloem loading, Phloem unloading, Source–sink relationship, Auxins—history of discovery, biosysnthesis and mechanism of action 12 Objectives
Week 6 : Gibberellins—history of discovery, biosysnthesis and mechanism of action, Cytokinins—history of discovery, biosysnthesis and mechanism of action, Abscisic acid—history of discovery, biosysnthesis and mechanism of action, Ethylene – history of discovery, biosynthesis and role in plant growth and development 12 Objectives
Week 7 : Bioassay of Auxins, Cytokinins and Gibberellins, Bioassay of Abscisic acid and Ethylene, Brassinosteroids: discovery, chemical nature, bioassay and physiological roles, Jasmonic acid: discovery, chemical nature, bioassay and physiological roles 12 Objectives
Week 8 : Development of flower as a modified shoot, Physiology of flowering, Flowering and photoperiodism (Short-day, Long-day and Day-neutral plants), Seed dormancy (types) and seed germination 12 Objectives

Week 9
: Phytochromes—discovery, role and mechanism of action, Cryptochromes: discovery, chemical nature, role in photomorphogenesis, mode of action, Phototropins: discovery, chemical nature, role in photomorphogenesis, mode of action, Low energy responses (LER) and high irradiance responses (HIR) 12 Objectives
Week 10 : Growth: phases and kinetics, Flowering plants: annuals, biennials and perennials, Senescence—mechanism and  role, Leaf abscission and senescence 12 Objectives
Week 11 : Plant movements, Leaf adaptations to water stress, Morphological and anatomical responses of plants to water, Physiological responses of plants to water stress 12 Objectives
Week 12 : Morphological, anatomical and physiological responses of plants to salinity, 3 Objectives

Books and references

Hopkins, W. G. and Huner, N. P. A. 2009. Introduction to Plant Physiology (4th Edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA.
Mengel, K., Kirkby, E. A., Kosegarten, H. and Appel, T. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition (5th edition). Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Nobel, P. S. 2009. Physiochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Academic Press; 4 edition (April 20, 2009)
Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1992. Plant Physiology (4th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California.
Srivastava, L. M.  2002. Plant Growth and Development: Hormones and Environment (1st edition). Academic Press, USA.
Taiz, L.,  Zeiger, E., Moller, M. and Murphy, A. 2014. Plant Physiology and Development (6th Edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts, USA. 

Instructor bio

Mohmad Arief Zargar is a Senior Assistant Professor in the Department of Botany University of Kashmir Srinagar. He has been teaching various PG Courses in Botany such as Plant Biochemistry, Plant Physiology, Postharvest Technology of cut flowers Crop Physiology, Biostatistics, Commercial Floriculture, and Fruits of Kashmir for the last 11 years. His area of research is Postharvest Physiology and Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants.
He obtained M. Sc. degree from the University of Kashmir and qualified reputed national level examination CSIR-UGC NET in 2001. He started his research career in the same University to obtain M. Phil. degree on the topic "Physiology of Senescence and Regulation of Vase Life in Some Ornamental Flowers of Kashmir". He worked for his Ph D on the topic, “Phytochemical Analysis and Development of Conservation Strategies for Epimedium elatum”.
He has published many research papers in the reputed journals, authored 1 book and attended many national and international conferences. He has been awarded an international award, “2016 Kader Awards in Postharvest Training” by the Board of Directors of The Postharvest Education Foundation, USA. He is a reviewer of many reputed scientific journals.

Course certificate

30% for in Course Assessment & 70% of end term proctored Exam.

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