Introduction to Computer Networks & Internet Protocols

By Prof. Bhushan Trivedi   |   GLS University
Learners enrolled: 4226
Hi Friends! Welcome to the course on Computer Networks and Internet Protocols. The course is designed for undergraduate engineering as well as post graduate MCA and MSc.IT students. The course describes the idea of computer networks and protocols used in the current networks mostly the TCP/IP suite of protocols and a few other supporting protocols. The course sticks to the conventional path of describing components of the network called layers one after another. However, it also ventures into a few emerging networking solutions which work in a cross layer design fashion, packet classification, MPLS or Multi-Protocol Label Switching, IoT or Internet of Things and SDN or Software Defined Networks, etc. Packet classification and SDN also throws some light on how modern day networks demand traffic engineering and how that can be addressed. 

The course describers the conventional layered design of computer networks, how different protocols works at different layers and how different functions of different layers are carried out. Starting from how Ethernet and Wireless networks work in the physical layer, it describes how the frames are constructed, errors are corrected and detected, how flow is controlled at data link layer, the course also throws some light on how the CRC and Hamming code techniques are used for the same. The course has a special module to describe how data link and transport layer protocols are designed and work. How the packets are routed across networks is described in network layer processing description. Different routing algorithms like Link State and AODV are explained next. The transport layer description includes TCP functioning, how UDP provides connectionless communication and how SCTP provides the best of both the worlds is also described. The application layer description includes description of various application layer protocols like SMTP, FTP, HTTP and DNS. The final lag of the course throws light on two of the emerging technologies which are threatening to change the conventional networking model. Using MPLS for providing different routing services based on labels, using SDN for providing special quality of services and detailed administration level control for traffic engineering is provided next. How the conventional networking model is divided into multiple planes and how that enables handling heterogeneous devices and diversified functioning in an automated manner is described next. The final three modules throw some light on IoT and related networking protocols, especially mesh networks which is commonly used in IoT and protocols for routing through mesh networks.
Course Status : Ongoing
Course Type : Core
Duration : 15 weeks
Start Date : 01 Jul 2021
End Date : 31 Oct 2021
Exam Date : 07 Nov 2021 IST
Enrollment Ends : 15 Sep 2021
Category :
  • Computer Science and Engineering
Credit Points : 4
Level : Undergraduate

Course layout

Introduction to Computer Networks and Internet protocols

CC: Prof. Bhushan Trivedi, Ph.D.

Host University: Gujarat University Ahmedabad

Module Number



Introduction to computer networks and TCP/IP Protocols, The TCP/IP protocol suit and the TCP/IP model


The concept of layering, The job of each layer, Connectionless vs. Connection oriented communication and services. TCP as CO service over CL connection and UDP as CL service over CL connection.


Complete communication process, an email and a web access communication over TCP/IP network. Showcasing how SMTP and HTTP works at each layer in a brief.


Computer Networks and its fundamentals, definition of the network, its characteristics, network components and network connections.


Modern network demands, packet classification, services using packet classification process, Conventional network model and modern network model based on service based on packet classification.


Variety of modern Networks having non computers as members, wired and wireless sensor networks, networks based on IOT devices, Home networks, Smart city networks. Big Data problems associated with these networks


Relation between the Bandwidth and the data rate of a channel, Data communication process and its ingredients, maximum data rate of a channel based on bandwidth of the channel and other parameters


The need for the signalling process for data communication, Analog and digital signalling , analog and digital data. Amplitude, frequency and phase modulation and their use in data communication


Data communication and the physical layer, the duties of physical layer, how analog and digital signalling is used for data communication at the physical layer, the process of multiplexing, demultiplexing and errors. Introduction to EM Spectrum


The EM spectrum, Radio, microwave and other types of waves. The frequencies used by different portions of the spectrum; frequency bands, characteristics of each of the portions and consequences. The relation between data communication and the frequency bands.


Wired and wireless physical layers, UTP, FO cables and their use in data communication, total internal reflection principle and difference between UTP and FO cables Hidden and exposed stations problem for wireless data communication and their solution.


802.11,16 and xDSL physical layers, Wireless LAN 802.11, multiple standards and versions of 802.11, 802.11a,802.11b,802.11g,802.11n, 802.11ac, OFDM, OFDMA and Discrete multitone


The Data link layer duties, error handling process, introduction to CRC



Error correction and other jobs of Data Link Layer, Hamming distance, hamming code, error correction vs. error detection, Convolution, Reed-Solomon, LDPC and Turbo codes


Communication at data link and transport layers, need for protocols, sliding windows, Go back n and Selective repeat strategies for communication


Medium Access Sublayer, The Ethernet: The need for MAC layer, Introduction to Ethernet, Gigabit and 10G Ethernet, Dual speed cards and auto negotiation


The Medium Access Sublayer:802.11 (Wi-Fi) –I, MAC layer, DCF and PCF Mode; i.e. ad hoc and infrastructure modes, CSMA/CA, Fragmentation, service primitives for infrastructure mode


The Medium Access Sub Layer 802.11 Wi-Fi – II,  extensions to 802.11, 802.11 frame structure, inter cell and intra  cell transmission process


Connecting LANs, Virtual LAN and 802.1Q, self-learning switches, interconnecting LANs, challenges and solutions for virtual LAN, 802.1Q standard


Addressing in networks, IPv4 addressing mechanism, subletting and CIDR, managing addressing with CIDR.


The difference between IPv4 and IPv6 addressing mechanism. Advantage offered by the IPv6. Different addressing mechanisms used by IPv6.


Network layer: services, accounting, addressing in TCP/IP

Network layer, routing and forwarding, connectionless and connection oriented forwarding, advantage of connecting networks at network layer


Network layer: routing, what a router contains, routing algorithms How routing is performed in TCP/IP networks, link state algorithm, two phases of LS algorithm, how best path is decided


Routing in MANets and the Exterior routing, the challenges in MANet Routing, AODV routing, the difference in exterior routing, hot potato and interior routing used in exterior routing process, multicast and broadcast routing


Congestion at Network layer and MPLS,  Congestion, congestion control, how tag based routing is performed in MPLS Routes, how switching based on tags is done in networks, how MPLS works, what are the challenges in implementing MPLS


Transport layer services, The transport layer, it’s duties, different categories and types of transport layer services, how TCP manages connections, flow control and estimation of round trip time, how retransmission timer is managed at TCP


TCP Timers and delayed duplicates problem in TCP, types of timers TCP normally uses, delayed duplicates, handshake process is managed and errors are handled at TCP, Tomlinson’s solution and the need for the three-way handshake


29.         Connection management with TCP, connection release process, asymmetric and symmetric connection release process, congestion control, implicit and explicit congestion control methods, slow start, AIMD, fast recovery and fast retransmit, explicit congestion notification


Introduction to UDP, a connectionless service mechanism over a connectionless delivery system


Introduction to SCTP, a transport layer better suited for a multimedia traffic


Application Layer, Domain Name Service,  Application layer, introduction to DNS and the process of name resolution, resource records


Resource Records in DNS and introduction to FTP, different types of resource records, How FTP works, control and data connections, passive FTP extensions


The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP),  The WWW and HTTP request and response, persistent connection, cookies and session variables


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP),  The Email system and SMTP  protocol, Internet mail standards, POP3 and IMAP


Internet of Things, sensing, monitoring and control, intelligent embedded devices, M2M, 802.15.4, mesh networks, why IoT devices prefer mesh networks, interactivity and communication needs


Mesh Networks and IPv6 over Mesh,  Why IoT devices need spectate routing protocols, mesh-under and route-over approaches, The reason IPv6 is chosen for mesh, configuring IPv6 solutions for Mesh, 6LowPAN and related issues


Other protocols for IoT, RPL, how routing is performed for storing and non-storing node, DOADG, Construction of DOADG and the role of central router, need of source routing and other refinements for processing. using protocols like mDNS, DNS-SD, PANA, etc.


Software Defined Networks (SDN) , Paths and connections, Separation of data and control, connection oriented networks and routing overlays, SDN as a combined solution


SDN implementation, Vendor specific solution problems, controllers and forwarding devices, communication need between controllers and other devices and external controllers, methods for implementing SDN


SDN architecture and OpenFlow, SDN architecture, Northbound and southbound APIs, how separation is managed, what is the idea of OPEN solutions, OpenFlow Technology, Basics, messages, usage, specific fields, software defined radios


Modules to be covered







Fundamentals and current situation



Physical layer prerequisites


10, 11,12

Physical layer



Data link layer



MAC layer



Network layer-1






Network Layer-2


26, 27,28

Transport layer-1



Transport layer-2 and Application layer



Application Layer-2










Books and references

1. Computer Networks by Bhushan Trivedi, Oxford University Press
2. Data Communication and Networking, Bhushan Trivedi, Oxford University Press

Instructor bio

Prof. Bhushan Trivedi

GLS University

Prof. Bhushan Trivedi, Ph. D. is working as the Dean, Faculty of Computer Technology (FoCT)at GLS University. He has also acted as the dean zone-1 in Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat for MCA. He has completed almost 3 decades in higher education, mostly as an academician and also in some part as an administrator.

Three of his books are published by Oxford University Press. First is on ANSI C++, second is on Computer Networks and the third is on Data Communication and Networks. ANSI C++ enjoyed the status of best-selling in Oxford Higher Education for four years.

Prof. Trivedi has authored two courses on EPGPathshala, one of which on AI is repurposed a MOOC for Swayam Platform on subject “AI”. The AI MOOC had been topped the list of all the MOOCs in terms of participation from across India and received a special congratulations from, then UGC Undersecretary Dr. Pankaj Mittal. His another MOOC on “Introduction to Computer Networks and Internet Protocols” is also in top 20 MOOCs in terms of participation.

Prof. Trivedi has guided 9 students to their PH. D. degrees so far. He is currently supervising 6 Ph D Students. He has authored nearly 100 research papers in reputed journals.. He has filed four patents. Two of the patents are with the help of Industry partners while two of them with the help of GTU Patent Department.

Prof. Trivedi’s research interests includes pedagogy, security, intrusion detection and prevention, expert systems and neural networks. He attended a workshop on “Effective Teaching by two renounced professors from US, Dr Richard Felder and Dr Rebecca Brent” organized by IUCEE in 2008. He has conducted about 23 workshops across India on “Effective Teaching” at places like L D College of Engineering, Banasthali University Rajasthan, Vignan University Guntur, Thyagarajar College of Engineering Madurai, NIT Surat etc. He has conducted about 10 workshops on research and related areas, about 8 workshops on “How to debug your network using Wireshark and TCPDUMP”.

Prof. Trivedi has given numerous speeches on Information Security, need for security policies and various other subjects related to security, research and pedagogy. Prof. Trivedi has been part of many Technical Program Committees of reputed journals and conferences.

Prof Trivedi is an active life member of Computer Society of India, was chairman Ahmedabad Chapter in 2007. He is part of many program and organizing committees of CSI Ahmedabad Chapter, including position of a program chair in ComNet 2015-16 held in February 2016. He is also a senior member of Academy of Computing Machinery (ACM).

Prof. Trivedi received an award for the work on effective teaching by IUCEE in 2009. He is also given Chapter Patron award by Computer Society of India in 2011.

Prof. Trivedi’s MOOCs on AI and Introduction to Computer Networks and Internet protocols are currently available over Swayam 2.0 Platform on alternate semesters. Both of them are developed under the auspicious of MHRD and Government of India.


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