Orientation and Mobility

By Mrs.R.Nagomi Ruth   |   Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science & Higher Education for Women is a women's Deemed University in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Learners enrolled: 701

Movement with independence in the environment has been stated to be one of the major challenges of vision loss. In order to facilitate their meaningful empowerment, it is necessary to provide students with visual impairment skills and techniques which enable them to cope with these chanllenges.   Orientation and Mobility (O&M) is a critical area for students with visual impairments as it is essential for the student to learn to move safely and efficiently and as independently as possible through all environments.  

The present course carrying the same title introduces the learners to various crucial aspects of this vital subject. It is hoped that through the study of the course, the student-teachers would be in a better position to understand the implications of vision loss with reference to independent movement. It would also enable them to get insights into basic skills and components essential for meaningful orientation and easy and graceful movement for the visually impaired.

Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Core
Duration : 8 weeks
Category :
  • Teacher Education
Credit Points : 2
Level : Undergraduate
Start Date : 13 Jul 2022
End Date : 20 Oct 2022
Enrollment Ends : 15 Sep 2022
Exam Date :

Page Visits

Course layout

Week - I
1. Effect of visual impairment on growth and development: Physical, Motor, Language, Socio-emotional, and Cognitive development
2. Effects of Visual Impairment on Personality Development -  Verbalism & Mannerism
3. What is Orientation and Mobility?

Week - II

4. Orientation and Mobility - Definition, Importance and Scope
5. Basic Terminologies Associated with O&M: Trailing, Landmarks, Clues, Cues, Shoreline, Squaring Off, Clockwise Direction, Sound Masking, Sound Shadow
6. Roles of Other Senses in O&M Training

Week- III

7. Orientation and Mobility for low vision children
8. Addressing orientation, mobility & educational needs of students with deaf-blindness
9. Special Responsibilities of Special Teacher/Educator with reference to O&M Training

Week - IV

10. Blindfold - Rationale and Uses for the Teacher
11. Human-Sighted Guide Techniques

Week - V

12. a) Cane Travel Techniques and Devices Part - 1
13. b) Cane Travel Techniques and Devices Part - 2

Week - VI 
14. Independent living skills - Meaning, Importance, Components
15. Training in Independent Living Skills - Self Care, Gait and Posture, Personal Grooming, Eating Skills and Etiquette,  Identification of Coins and Currency Notes & Basics of Signature Writing
16. Daily living skills - assessment of needs and techniques of teaching age appropriate daily living skills

Week - VII

17. Sensory efficiency - importance and procedures for training auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, kinaesthetic senses and residual vision
18. Techniques of teaching social interaction skills, leisure and recreation skills and self -determination
19. Adaptation of Physical education activities and Yoga

Week - VIII

20. Adaptation of Games and Sports - both Indoor and Outdoor
21. Agencies for sports -Visually Impaired

Books and references

1. Bhushan Punani and Nandini Rawal (1987), “Visual Impairment Hand Book”, Blind People's Association.Vastrpur, Ahamedabad. Gujarat, India.

2. Juliet Stone, (1995), “Mobility for Special Needs”, British Library Cataloging -in- publication data.

3. Krik Horton, J (1987), “A Training Gide for field Workers”, Community Based Rehabilitation of the Rural Blind Helen Keller International incorporated. New York.

4. William Allen, Annalyn C. Barbier, Anne Griffith, Teddy Kern, Cynthia Shaw (1997) “Orientation and Mobility Teaching Manual, Visions/Services for the Blind & Visually Impaired”.

5. William R. Wiener, Richard L. Welsh, Bruce B. Blasch (2010), “Foundations of Orientation and Mobility”, American Foundation for the Blind, 15 west 16th street, New York NY 10011.

6. Bailey, B., & Head, D. (1993). Providing O&M services to children and youth with severe multiple disabilities. RE:view, 25, 57-66.

7. Hill, E., Rosen, S., Correa, V., & Langley, M. (1984). Preschool orientation and mobility: An expanded definition. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 16, 58-72.

8. Hill, E., & Ponder, P. (1976). Orientation and mobility techniques. New York, NY: AFB Press.

9. Jaimitra, S. (1986): New Trends in Orientation and Mobility, LBMRC Research and       Newsletter, 11 (1), April, P. 5.

10. Thomas, J.E. (1970). Detroit school students evaluate mobility education program.The Outlook for the Blind. 64, 182-185.

Instructor bio

Mrs.R.Nagomi Ruth

Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science & Higher Education for Women is a women's Deemed University in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

The Course Coordinator of this course is possessing Master degree in Mathematics with Master of Special Education. Also having Master of Philosophy in Education with 15 years of teaching experience both in inclusive school and at higher educational institution. She was the Project Staff in the Indo-US Research Project on Response to Intervention Model in Indian Context. She also published 15 articles in both National and International level.

Course certificate

30% for in course Assessment & 70% of end term Proctored Exam

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