Technology of Fermented Cheese Ice-cream and By-products

By Professor M. K. Salooja   |   Indira Gandhi National Open University
Learners enrolled: 1024
Since last 15 years, India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world with an estimated production of 163.7 million tonnes in 2016-17. Milk production in India is growing at 5-6% per year, and at present India contributes 18.5% of the total world milk production. Milk is the main output of livestock sector accounting for two-third of the total value of output of livestock. Currently, Milk is India’s number one farm commodity leaving behind paddy, wheat and horticultural products. The milk production grew at a rate of 5.53% per annum and is expected to reach 189 million metric tonnes by 2020. The per capita availability of the milk has reached a level of 351 grams in the year 2016-17, which is much higher than the world average of 284 grams per day. India’s estimated demand for milk by 2020-21 is supposed to be 210 million litres.

The frozen, fermented dairy products (including cheese) and by-products make an important category of dairy products. Frozen desert and fermented products are enjoyed all over the world due to their superior taste compared to other dairy products. Their manufacturing is easy and do not require very costly equipment like evaporator or drier and their nutritive value is better than other dairy products as there is no loss of any of the milk constituents during the manufacturing of these products (as no severe heat treatment is applied to milk or no separation of milk constituents is there except in cheese). Dairy by-products are also important because their manufacturing lead to an increase in the profitability of the organization and mitigate environmental pollution. Keeping in view the importance of frozen, fermented and by-products in mind a detailed discussion regarding their composition, classification, standard specifications, method of manufacturing, packaging and defects occurring during manufacturing and storage of these products are covered in four different components of this course.

Component 1: A detail description of fermented products including starter cultures, nutritional importance, method of manufacture, standard specifications, packaging, storage and common defects occurring either during manufacturing or storage of these products shall be covered.
Component 3: The component covers important varieties of cheese like cheedar, mozzarella and pasteurized processed cheese.
Component 4: The component on dairy by-product shall cover skimmed milk, casein, lactose, butter milk and ghee residue.
Component 2: Shall cover nutritional importance, standard specifications and classification of the frozen desert along with their manufacturing, packaging, storage and defects.

Course Credit: 4
Course Status : Completed
Course Type : Core
Duration : 16 weeks
Start Date : 15 Feb 2021
End Date :
Exam Date :
Enrollment Ends : 30 Jun 2021
Category :
  • Agricultural and Food Engineering
Credit Points : 4
Level : Diploma

Course layout

Technology of Fermented, Cheese, Ice-cream and By-products: Layout



Milk Composition and its Constituents


Introduction to Microbiology


Physico-Chemical Properties of Milk

Fermented Products


Starter Cultures and Nutritional Importance of Fermented Milks


Principle and Methods of Manufacture of Fermented Dairy Products: Dahi, Misti Dahi, Lassi, Yoghurt, Shrikhand


Packaging and Storage of Fermented Milks



Principle and Methods of Manufacture of Cheese: Cheddar, Mozzarella and Pasteurized Processed Cheese Products (PCPs)

Frozen Dairy Products


Definition, Composition, Classification and Standards


Principle and Method of Manufacture


Packaging, Hardening, Storage, Transportation and Common Defects


Softy and Novelties – Definition, Composition, Legal Standards, Method of Manufacture



Skim Milk – Casein and Caseinates


Whey – Whey Beverages, Whey Powder, Lactose and Whey Protein Concentrates


Buttermilk and Ghee Residue


New Technologies in By-product Utilization (Membrane Processing – Reverse Osmosis and UltraFiltration)

Books and references

  • Course BPVI-016: Dairy Products-III of “Diploma in Dairy Technology” programme being offered by School of Agriculture, IGNOU.
  • De, Sukumar. 1999. Outlines of Dairy Technology, Oxford University Press.
  • Kessler, H.G. (1st ed). 1981. Food Engineering and Dairy Technology. Publishing House Verlog A. Kessler, Germany. 
  • Robinson, R.K. (2nd ed). 1994. Modern Dairy Technology Vol.I. Chapman Hall. U.K. 
  • Tamime, A.Y. and Robinson, R.K. 1999. Yoghurt Science and Technology. 

Instructor bio

Professor M. K. Salooja

Indira Gandhi National Open University
Dr. M.K. Salooja, Professor & Director, School of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi. Academic experience of more than 30 years in the disciplines of Dairy Technology, Food Safety and Quality Management and Vocational Education.  A Dairy Technologist by profession from the National Dairy Research Institute and set to the teaching profession as Assistant Professor in the Dairy Science College, Udaipur. Diversified into educational planning and vocational education by serving as Senior Research Officer in the Planning Commission and Reader in the NCERT, respectively. 
IGNOU’s experience in the open and distance learning is adding new vista to the academic profession.  At present, the Programme Coordinator for the following IGNOU programmes:
  1. Diploma in Dairy Technology
  2. Diploma in Value Added Products from Fruits & Vegetables
  3. Post Graduate Diploma in Food Safety & Quality Management 
  4. Ph.D. in Dairy Science & Technology

Awarded with Commonwealth Scholarship for Post doctorate at CSIRO, Australia and Jawaharlal Nehru Award of ICAR. Always willing to learn.

Contact details:
Office: 011-29572976
Email: mksalooja@ignou.ac.in

Course certificate

The passing criteria for this course is:. 
Internal assessment : 20% weightage (Calculated from the 10 Highest marks obtained in Assignment Quizzes).
Final examination: 80% weightage

Minimum pass marks (Percent)
Internal Assessment: 50%. 
Final examination: 50%.
Overall: 50%

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